1. Anemia
  2. Autoimmune diseases
  3. Signs of tongue disease.

Signs of tongue disease.

 Pathologies and disorders reflected in the tongue.

Signs of tongue disease

The tongue is a highly vascularized, primarily muscular organ that plays several vital roles and functions in the human body. And although, in general, it is not given much importance, it is essential for various functions such as phonation and communication, chewing, swallowing, taste perception, and oral cleaning and lubrication.

But the tongue is also an organ where health professionals can detect numerous diseases. 

The tongue of a healthy person is pink and clean, but some pathologies modify its characteristics:

- A lack of vitamins A, B2, and C usually causes tongue inflammation (glossitis). Also, a vitamin deficiency, stress, or hormonal changes can cause the appearance of cracks on the tongue, which is called geographic tongue.

- Anemia: A pale tongue may indicate anemia, characterized by a decrease in red blood cells or a lack of iron in the body.

- Vitamin B12 deficiency: if the tongue is red, swollen, or smooth, it may be a symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition that affects the production of red blood cells and the proper functioning of the nervous system.

- Autoimmune diseases: ulcers and sores may appear on the tongue in conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Behçet's disease.

- Cardiac pathologies and circulation problems: the tongue acquires a purple pigmentation.

- Fungal infections: fungi, such as oral candidiasis, can produce a white coating on the tongue and mucous membranes.

- Liver problems: jaundice is characterized by a yellowish tint to the skin, eyes, and sometimes the tongue.

- Diseases of the digestive system: ulcers or reflux can cause the tongue to turn grayish.

- Bacterial infections: some, such as scarlet fever or syphilis, can cause changes in the tongue, such as a "strawberry" appearance or painful sores.

- Excessive consumption of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and black tea can cause a condition called "hairy tongue," characterized by a blackish color and the appearance of hair on the tongue but disappears when consuming these products is eliminated.

How to maintain the health of the tongue.

Fundamental to the importance of keeping the tongue in good condition, proper oral hygiene is necessary. In addition to brushing the teeth, the tongue's surface should be cleaned to remove bacteria and food debris that accumulate on it. To do this, it is recommended to use a tongue scraper or a specific tongue brush designed to remove bacteria and food debris that may accumulate on the tongue.

Another tip is to eliminate irritating factors such as broken teeth, crowns, or ill-fitting dentures and to avoid tobacco and alcohol consumption. Also, a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables will help to avoid vitamin deficiencies that negatively affect the tongue.

In conclusion, observation of the tongue can be a useful complementary tool in diagnosing certain diseases and disorders. In the event of any alteration or unusual change in the tongue, it is recommended to see a dentist for proper diagnosis and treatment.